Assignment Sample on application of Organisational Behaviour in Employee Motivation
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Motivational theory is an important element of a workplace environment that encourage employees to feel comfortable during the time of service in their life. In other words, there are different types of motivational theory that guides management of an organisation to implement for the purpose of motivating and encouragement of the staffs and feel dignified and relaxed at work and gain objectives of the organisation. In this essay, it will throw a deep insight upon the two motivational theories, Maslow’s motivational theory and Reinforcement Theory, chosen for discussing and evaluating on the advantages and disadvantages of such theories in a real organisation with the help of examples to understand them in a proper way.
Further, this assignment also focuses on the variety of organisations using such theories of motivation in different ways to motivate their staffs for long-term perspectives. In addition, it gives emphasis on the shortcomings of some of the management that does not pay attention to employee motivational policies for growth and sustainability of the business. In that case, it is suggested that some positive aspects of motivating individual employees and their way of getting influenced well to stay with own interests and dignity and recognition of own talent.
The second choice of motivational theory relates to the Hierarchy of Need formulated by Abraham Maslow. The respective motivational theory within the psychological consisting five-tier structure of human requirement often highlighted as the hierarchical stage. Fallatah & Syed, (2018) explained that human needs at low of hierarchy level should be satisfied prior to the individual attempting to the requirement at a higher level of the hierarchy. The concept of motivation relates to the encouragement or enthusiasm of the personnel management.
Motivation is prospective pre-determined targets, guiding the work of employee to offer a procedure to be placed in managerial and personal expectations. Ozguner & Ozguner (2014) added that motivation is the approach managers undertake to promote several of motives for staffs to realize the organizational objective. The administrators require dealing with the concern related to motivation to lead a productive organization. It is essential to take benefit of motivation theory to improve the efficiency within corporate and staff’s adaptation by evaluating the psychological of the workforce. The hierarchy of need describing scientific management of people highlight that individual within the organization have needs as they are psychological and social entities as well as such people have to fulfil respective needs. From upward to the bottom of the hierarchy, the needs are self-actualization, esteem, belonging and love, safety, physiological (Fallatah & Syed, 2018).
The physiological requirement undertakes the most basic need of the people for shelter, food or water. In order to meet such needs, there have been public and private organizations that offer a salary to the employees, enabling them to afford comfortable leaving the atmosphere. The need for safety and esteem need refer to the requirement for a secure work environment as well as the requirement for self-respect or other approval. For instance, a large organization like Sainsbury and Burberry irrespective of their industry type both follow safety and health law to offer their workforce with a working environment that is free of harm and support staff well being. The safe work environment becomes prime importance in the dangerous sector, for instance, the construction sector making important for managers to offer helmet, protective gloves and footwear to safeguard workforce from potential harm. In Sainsbury, the employees based on their excellent performance are rewarded with bonus and incentive that meet their esteem needs (Live Well For Less, 2019).
The social needs recognized as the requirement affiliated to be accepted or loved by other individuals. In order to fulfil such needs, several organization irrespective of the industry encourage staffs participation in social activities like corporate bowling and picnics. The need for self-actualization determines the requirement for becoming an individual that has the fullest potential. The basis holds here to indicate that self-actualized staffs are valuable assets to corporate human resource. The manager that fulfil workforce self-actualization requirement has been able to utilize the staff's full potential to improve the overall effectiveness and productivity of the business. Acevedo (2018) argued that the significant value of Maslow's need theory placed within practical implication it offers for the manager of the organization.
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The purpose behind the theory is that it is capable of suggesting manager on the ways they may make their subordinate or staffs to be self-actualized. For instance in M&S organization, the managers are effectively capable of keeping their staffs motivated by offering them financial security, opportunity to socialize by working within the team and identifying staff's accomplishment to gain high business performance. The Maslow's motivation theory has been helpful to understand the need of the individual within the work environment and inclusion of several elements that help in keeping them satisfied as well as motivated to deliver productive work.
Other than the above-mentioned Maslow’s Motivational Theory, there is another significant theory of motivation that is considered to be the oldest theory of motivating human mind and behaviour. Reinforcement theory is all about behaviourism and operant training that is practised and taught in the world of psychology (Agarwal, Jiang & Kakade, 2019). In other words, it is a systematic process of enhancing the action and behaviour of human nature. To be more elaborated, Reinforcement theory involves four approaches of motivation gives a human being to increase the desirable human behaviour as well as to control the occurrence of undesirable behaviour from human behaviour.
Wei & Yazdanifard, (2014) opined that positive reinforcement is a medium of approach that is applicable for any kind of progressive performance recognised by the management team of an organisation. It determines the fact that if an employee performs naturally well than other colleagues he/she would automatically get a reward from the senior managers, which would positively reinforce them to feel motivated at the workplace. However, Gordan & Krishanan, (2014) contradicted that negative reinforcement is one such motivational theory that makes an individual realise about his/her own mistakes, errors and learns to rectify them accordingly for improving behaviour. It means that if staffs commit a big mistake such as arriving late in the office for three consecutive days, it would let the staffs not to be paid full salary for the day and let their salary deducted and given last warning for not repeating this late coming.
Besides, Agarwal, Jiang & Kakade, (2019) stated that punishment reinforcement force to administer a practice for generating some new change in the organisation. On the contrary, Wei & Yazdanifard, (2014) argues that negative punishment intends to remove away the negative aspect of an organisation separated from others to offer a healthy workplace environment. From these, contradictions, it can be recognised that reinforcement of human behaviour has a positive and negative impact upon the workflow process.
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We take academic writers onboard after a stringent hiring process. Success hiring rate is only 6% in our company.
Our all academic writers are based out in Australia as they understand the Australian education system properly.
We make sure you get turnitin and safeassign.com tested papers. We share a free plagiarism report to ensure you get unique papers.
All you need to do is submit your assignment through our order form. You don't need to pay anything at this stage as we offer free evaluation
On agreement about the price for writing, you can make payment. You have option to make payments in parts.
You get a dedicated assignment progress area. You have an option to communicate directly with the assigned expert on our online platform.
You can communicate through chat, WhatsApp , Call or SMS to connect with our sales team or academic writers.
Academic submissions are time sensitive and we never add any delay in the trail with slow responses. We are a fast assignment help provider.
Our support team never sleeps, hence you can initiate a chat anytime on our website to discuss your queries about existing work or a new work.
For example, Huawei is one such brand that applies increasing reward schemes, as a motivational practice for employees to feel inspired in the workplace environment (Wei & Yazdanifard, 2014). On the other way, Fargo is the fourth largest bank found to be caught in practising fraudulent activities of selling financial products unethically (Coleman, 2019). This impelled the management to take negative punishment reinforcement against such employees to fire them with immediate effect. This can be a good sample of example that justifies the fact that reinforcement theory is applicable for any kind of behavioural attitude that exists in human beings.
Apart from this discussion, it can be identified that depending on the type of organisation sector, the theory of motivation is incorporated or practised in real. According to Du Plessis, Douangphichit & Dodd, (2015) hospitality is a concerned sector that involves a large number of challenges and high scale communication skills and customer relations. In other words, in this sector, employees are generally competent enough to deal with several obstructions and barriers and learn experience from the quality team under HRM to enhance their performance levels. In that case, Hotel Travelogue situated in central London uses such motivational practice to encourage the staffs to retain for long-term aspects (Travelodge | Great value hotels throughout the UK & Ireland, 2019).
On the contrary, Islami, Mulolli & Mustafa, (2018) implementing performance appraisal tool, as suitable framework employees can also be motivated well. In other words, it helps in recognising the staffs having good skills and competencies at work process and applying them for the purpose of self-actualisation and changing behavioural acts. For example, a company like British Airways uses such motivational theory through performance appraisal by promoting into higher position or giving better career opportunities in future (British Airways, 2019). Therefore, it reveals the fact that reinforcement theory is an ideal practice than Maslow’s motivational perspective on the contrary in order to find some practical aspects of human behaviour.
What are some of the shortcomings of management in motivating employees?
Some of the shortcomings of management in motivating the employees would lie on variable aspects. According to Islami, Mulolli & Mustafa (2018) management of an organisation usually faces communication gap with their employees for not being able to recognise their talents or understanding their expectations. Besides, Du Plessis, Douangphichit & Dodd, (2015) argued that management does not always underestimate the employees in front of other staffs, rather management tries to provide healthy workplace environment to engage employees to interact with one another.
In other words, employees are unable to maintain good relationship with one another due to the presence of conflicts and diversification of culture that compels to discontinue their service and imbalance work and life. For example, if an Australian mining industry gives work pressure on the labours without incrementing the wages, it would let the labours leave from the service. Certain cases happen in most of the working sectors in general.
What can management do to improve the organizational practices of motivating employees?
At current, the workforce formed of five generation makes it a hard task to understand every need clearly. The management requires increasing productivity and improving the revenue that means it needs its employee to work at full potential. It can be achieved by an organization by clearly identifying the ways and requirement to motivate its staffs. In order to develop the organizational practice of encouraging or motivating staffs, the management is recommended to undertake the following steps-
Opportunity for growth: It is the key to satisfying and long-lasting jobs. The employees within the organization are highly motivated when they sense they are learning valuable and new things (Bhuvanaiah & Raya, 2015). The management needs to foster career development through workshops, training for staffs to keep them updated with new industry trend and technology.
Align recognition and reward continuously with individual contribution: The management needs to clearly outline an effective system of recognition, rewards and other bonus or benefits coherently (Upadhyaya, 2014). On the contrary, any apparent inconsistency of the arrangement may de-motivate the employee.
Encourage innovation and ideation: The establishment of the conducive atmosphere can allow staffs to thing beyond from daily work and unleash their creativity and imagination. The management encouraging contribution from the staffs would be effective to motivate them. It facilitates them to share individual ideas and foster open-door policy within the organization.
In affirmation to the above discussion, it is concluded that motivated staffs are a crucial element enabling management to fulfil corporate goals. The motivated workforce has noted to be essential in leading the organization towards greater productivity and accomplishing higher output standards. The reinforcement theory highlighted that to promote behaviour that manager, like to implement within organization rewards, are offered, and for eliminating undesirable attitudes, punishments are meted out. The hierarchy of need formulated by Maslow has still found to be relevant and crucial within the current business environment for all corporate that looks to gain excellence and success within the respective industry.
The essay highlighted the certain shortcoming of administration in motivating staffs. The communication gap, absence of clear understanding between job satisfaction and performance appraisal has somewhat depicted management incapability to encourage, retain as well as motivate staffs to deliver work at their full potential. For motivating workforce, the management improving their organizational practices in terms of aligning rewards or recognition and offering the opportunity for growth has been an effective approach. In addition, encouraging ideation and innovation has been non-monetary support provided to the employee to keep them motivated to working hard every day.
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Acevedo, A. (2018). A personalistic appraisal of Maslow’s needs theory of motivation: From “humanistic” psychology to integral humanism. Journal of Business Ethics, 148(4), 741-763.
Agarwal, A., Jiang, N., & Kakade, S. M. (2019). Reinforcement Learning: Theory and Algorithms.
Bhuvanaiah, T., & Raya, R. P. (2015). Mechanism of improved performance: Intrinsic motivation and employee engagement. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 12(4), 92.
British Airways. (2019). Retrieved 5 September 2019, from https://www.britishairways.com/travel/home/public/en_in
Coleman, A. (2019). New brand, same culture: Wells Fargo workers say the company is still toxic. Retrieved 5 September 2019, from https://www.vox.com/2019/3/9/18257863/wells-fargo-bank-employees-customer-practices
Du Plessis, A., Douangphichit, N., & Dodd, P. (2015). HRM in relation to employee motivation and job performance in the hospitality industry. International Business Conference (IBC).
Fallatah, R. H. M., & Syed, J. (2018). A Critical Review of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. In Employee Motivation in Saudi Arabia (pp. 19-59). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Gordan, M., & Krishanan, I. A. (2014). A Review of BF Skinner’s ‘Reinforcement Theory of Motivation’. International Journal of Research in Education Methodology, 5(3), 680-688.
Islami, X., Mulolli, E., & Mustafa, N. (2018). Using Management by Objectives as a performance appraisal tool for employee satisfaction. Future Business Journal, 4(1), 94-108.
Live Well For Less. (2019). Retrieved 5 September 2019, from https://www.about.sainsburys.co.uk/~/media/Files/S/Sainsburys/documents/reports-and-presentations/annual-reports/sainsburys-ar-2018-full-report.pdf
Ozguner, Z., & Ozguner, M. (2014). A managerial point of view on the relationship between of Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's dual-factor theory. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(7).
Travelodge | Great value hotels throughout the UK & Ireland. (2019). Retrieved 5 September 2019, from https://www.travelodge.co.uk/
Upadhyaya, C. (2014). Application of the Maslow's hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee's performance. International Journal of Education and Management Studies, 4(4), 353.
Wei, L. T., & Yazdanifard, R. (2014). The impact of positive reinforcement on employees' performance in organizations. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 4(1), 9.