A complete referencing guide for Australian students by Ole Verroni
A referencing/citation style is a defined set of rules for the writers to acknowledge the ideas, the thoughts and the works of the other authors in a certain way, that you utilized to complete your research. Even though writers of Myassignmenthelperonline.com are proficient in automating the process of creating and formatting precise citations, it’s still critical for students to not only “create” but distinguish between different formatting. Any thesis, dissertation, case-study or project report is incomplete without preferred referencing style and later compiling all of them in a bibliography. Referencing is an important part of academic and research paper writing, avoiding plagiarism and is key to your research and assignment. Using our curated guide for citation styles such as APA, MLA, Chicago (A&b), AGLC, Harward and Turabian, you can cite down all your resources.
Australian guide for legal Citation (AGLC)
This guide represents the style for bibliography and footnotes for 4th edition of Australian guide for legal citation (AGLC4). The referencing style of AGLC comprises of two main features, First is in-text reference numbers with accompanying footnotes. The reference number comes after the utilized text and point out to the footnotes which appears within the text of your assignment, usually at foot of every page. These footnotes acknowledge each source that have been used in the above text. Make sure you use full stop after every footnote. The second is the bibliography which appears at the end of your assignment and provide the reader with a complete list of all the resources, you have cited for completing your research paper.
In AGLC, the referencing style varies with books, journal articles, legalisation, cases-both reported judgement, unreported judgements and internet materials/websites. Let’s find out how to cite your sources according to AGLC4, with these examples:
Author’s initials or first name, Surname, Main Title of book, (Publisher/edition/year).
- Jennifer O'Reilly, Brendan Sweeney, and Andrew Coleman, Law in Commerce (LexisNexis Butterworths, 6th ed, 2016)
- Plato: Republic, (“Republic”, Oxford Worlds Classics, 1994)
Please note, if there are more than three authors for one book, use “et al”
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To cite a resource from a journal article, it’s suggested to use full tile of journal articles, you can omit the initials like “the” or “a” at the start of the journal. It’s critical to mention both issue number and volume number. The reference should follow as
Author’s initial name, surname” name of the article” (year), volume (issue), journal name starting point.
- Bhat, GM and Kastoori Srinivas, “Economic Developments of GCC Countries: An Overview”  2010 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information and Financial Engineering.
- United Nations Juridical Yearbook 2008”  United Nations Juridical Yearbook.
Ensure that you are citing a website only if the collected information is not published in the print format. If there is no Author’s name provided on the website, There is no need to mention the website’s name. The referencing style for a website as follows:
Author’s initial name, surname, The title of the document(date, year), Website name(URL)
- ARTICLE XX GENERAL EXCEPTIONS
- Exponential Smoothing Explained. Exponential Smoothing Explained
For all legalisation reference
Short title of the Act Year (Jurisdiction). For instance:
- Migration Act 1958 (Cth) s 65.
If you are discussing aspects of a certain case, Use only surnames instead of Initials. Only cite defendant and Plaintiff, Do not include the punctuation.
Case Name, (Year), Volume report series Abbreviation, Starting point.
- Godwin v Al-Kateb (2004) 219 CLR 562, 564.
When you are quoting from an encyclopedia, the only thing you need to take care is to mention the latest update or use the date of retrieval.
The referencing style for Encyclopedia is written in:
Publishing house, Encyclopedia Title, volume number, (full date), Title Number, Chapter Number.
- Pinner, HL, “The Protection of Intellectual and Industrial Property throughout the World: a Legal Encyclopedia
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MLA 8th edition (Modern Language Association)
MLA style is well known for its documentation in the field of arts/humanities especially in writing on literature and Language. Unlike AGLC, MLA features some ground principal, rather than introducing the extensive list of certain rules. Since the text have became digitally resources, and the same document may be cited in various resources, following a set of strict rules no longer suffice. Thus, this guide will assist you in describing how to write reference in MLA Style according to process of documentation rather than by certain type of documents.
Once you have understood with the method, you can use it any type of source, any sort of paper or document, in any stream.
When deciding on the method to cite your sources, you should begin with consulting a complete list of core elements. Every entry in the list is composed of several attributes that are common to the work-The Core Elements. They are listed in a particular order which is defined below:
- Name/Title of source.
- Title of Container,
- Other Partners/Contributors,
- Publication house/ Publisher,
- The date of Publication,
- Here are some of the examples of how to cite resources in MLA style for books, journals, websites, Magazine, newspaper and more.
Here are some examples of citation in MLA 8th edition:
- Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. Vintage, 2019. (Book)
- “No. 1233. United Nations (United Nations International Drug Control Programme) and United Nations (United Nations Volunteers Programme).” United Nations Treaty Series Treaty Series 2085, 2002, pp. 453–453. (Journal)
- “Kyoto Protocol - Targets for the First Commitment Period.” UNFCCC, https://unfccc.int/process-and-meetings/the-kyoto-protocol/what-is-the-kyoto-protocol/kyoto-protocol-targets-for-the-first-commitment-period. (Internet-Material/Website)
You need to take care of some points such as
The title of resources for a book should always be in Italics. For instance ‘ The origin of species’ in the above example.
In the eighth edition of MLA style, We need to take care where to locate containers. To understand what is a container, just for instances if we want to cite an article that is listed in the collection of articles on the same topic, the individual article os the main source, while the larger collection of articles in the container.
- Schwab, Susan. "Acknowledge Doha’s demise and move on to save the WTO."Next Steps: Getting Past the Doha Round Crisis, edited by Simon Evenett and Richard Baldwin, 2011, pp. 29-39.
For some particular cases, a container may be located within a larger container. For instance, if you are retrieving information from short stories on Amazon Kindle, or taken some context from the latest Netflix series.
- “The Rickshank Rickdemption”, Rick and Morty, season 3, episode1, Adult Swim, 1 April 2017. Netflix,
APA Style (7th edition)
The 7th edition of the reference guide manual of the American Psychological Association has been published and printed copies are available worldwide. APA style provides a concrete foundation for writers and authors as it helps them depict their ideas in a concise, clear and inclusive manner. APA style of referencing follows the same context as that of Australian guide to legal citation: two main parts which are footnotes within the text of your research paper and a reference list at the end of your document. The method used to write reference according to APA citation is “Author-date” style, so that reference in your text contains the name of your author(s) followed by appropriate punctuation and Year of Publication given partially or completely in the Round Brackets.
Use only the surnames of the writer(s) followed by a comma and the year of journal published. If you want to be more specific about your resource, include page, section number and chapters. For instance, if you are paraphrasing, quoting and summarising:
- SALINGER, J. D. (2019). Catcher In The Rye. S.l.: LITTLE, BROWN. (Book)
- Jones, K. (2009). Institutional Friction in the Doha Development Round. The Doha Blues, 21–50. (Journal)
As you can see that there is no distinction made between Journal articles, books, Internet documents and other materials except for the documents present only in electronic format and those which do not provide page numbers. In such case, it is suggested to use the adequate paragraph number, if available, with the abbreviated paragraph. The full details of the sources are generally given in the list at the end of the document.
- Gaines, S. O. (2019). Trait perspectives on personality. Personality Psychology, 107–127.
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Chicago is a style for documentation which has been published by Chicago University Press since 1906. The citation style instruct the writers to follow set guidelines for punctuation and grammar in American English. Generally, the Chicago style depicts two basic documentation aspects: (1) Author-date style and (2) Footnotes and bibliography. The notes and bibliography style are usually preferred by students of humanities, literature, arts and history and also known as Chicago A. For instance
- Kelly, Maureen. Lord of the Flies. New York: Wiley Publishing, 2000. (Book)
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Renaissance Art.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc., November 1, 2018. https://www.britannica.com/art/Renaissance-art. (Website Material)
While author-date style has long been used by those in natural, physical and social science. In this type of system, sources are briefly cited in the text, normally in parentheses, by author’s surname and publication date. The short citations are normally amplified by a complete list of citations in bibliography.
For example, In-text citation for the above example would be:
(Maureen 2000, 45-67)
While the reference for the bibliography will be mentioned as:
- Kelly, Maureen., 2000. Lord of the Flies. New York: Wiley Publishing.
Harvard Style of Referencing
This guide depicts the details of the Harvard style of referencing style which has its base on the “British standard book Information and documentation guidelines for bibliographic reference and citation to credible resources”. Referencing in the Harvard style is usually a two-way process.
In-text Citation: The brief introduction of source within the text of your work immediately after the work cited, or information used whether summaries or quoted.
Reference List: It consist of all the list of resources used to complete your assignment. It enables the reader to follow up these references in order to recognize the original text of the author.
The Harvard style referencing is an author/date method. The sources are cited within the text by giving the surname of the author followed by the date. All the other details related to resources is given at the end of the document in the bibliography. If you are quoting directly from the source, include the page or section number for making it easy for the reader to find the relevant text. For eg (Dickens, 1859). While at the end of the document, the reference for the same will be written as:
Dickens, C. and De Mille, A. (1859). A tale of two cities. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Tips for writing reference in Harvard
- If the author(s) surname appears in the text as per the main body of your research paper, then the year will follow the author’s name in the round bracket, For instance, According to Darwin (1859)
- If the author(s) name does not appear in the main body of your paper, then the author’s name and date should follow in the strict round bracket. For example (Smith 2017).
- The abbreviation idem and ibid should not be used within the system of Harvard referencing.
- In some of the particular cases, you may need to write more than one piece of work for an idea. If such a thing occurs, you should separate the both reference with a semicolon and try to cite them in chronological order. This point has been shown to several authors (Darwin 1859: Mendleve 1865).
- If the author of particular work is unknown, Use Anon instead of creator’s name e.g: the reports suggest that….(Anon1919).
Harvard Referencing is the most followed standard in Australia
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